Population and Demographics

The majority of Swaziland's population is ethnic Swazi, mixed with a small number of Zulus and non-Africans, mostly whites of British and Afrikaner descent. Traditionally, Swazis have been subsistence farmers and herders, but most now work in the growing urban formal economy and in government. Some Swazis work in the mines in South Africa. Swaziland also received Portuguese settlers and black refugees from Mozambique. Christianity in Swaziland is sometimes mixed with traditional beliefs and practices. Most Swazis ascribe a special spiritual role to the monarch.

Facts and Figures

  • Population: 1,136,334
  • Age Structure:
    • 0-14 years: 40.7% (male 233,169/female 229,103)
    • 15-64 years: 55.8% (male 303,260/female 330,460)
    • 65 years and over: 3.6% (male 16,071/female 24,271)
  • Median Age:
    • Total: 18.5 years
    • Male: 17.8 years
    • Female: 19.2 years
  • Population Growth Rate: -0.23%
  • Birth Rate: 27.41 births/1,000 population
  • Death Rate: 29.74 deaths/1,000 population
  • Net Migration Rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population
  • Sex Ratio:
    • At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    • Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    • 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    • 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
    • Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female
  • Infant Mortality Rate:
    • Total: 71.85 deaths/1,000 live births
    • Male: 75.25 deaths/1,000 live births
    • Female: 68.34 deaths/1,000 live births
  • Life Expectancy at Birth:
    • Total population: 32.62 years
    • Male: 32.1 years
    • Female: 33.17 years
  • Total Fertility Rate: 3.53 children born/woman
  • HIV/AIDS:
    • Adult prevalence rate: 38.8%
    • People living with HIV/AIDS: 220,000
  • Ethnic Groups:
    • African 97%
    • European 3%
    • Religions:
    • Zionist 40% (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship)
    • Roman Catholic 20%
    • Muslim 10%
    • Other (includes Anglican, Bahai, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish) 30%
  • Languages:
    • English (official, government business conducted in English)
    • SiSwati (official)
  • Literacy:
    • Total population: 81.6%
    • Male: 82.6%
    • Female: 80.8%